Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Hepatoblastoma: Review of Pathology, Diagnosis and Modern Treatment Strategies

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Adil A. Abbas*, Alaa M.N. Samkari and Abeer S. Almehdar   Pages 276 - 291 ( 16 )

Abstract:


Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary malignant hepatic tumor of childhood and, occurring predominantly in the first two years of life. Approximately 100 cases are diagnosed every year in the United States of America. The management of HB has changed markedly over the last three decades. Alfa feto protein (AFP) and beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta HCG) are the main tumor markers and are markers for diagnosis and follow up. International collaborative efforts have led to the implementation of the Pre - Treatment Extent of the Disease PRETEXT staging system consensus classification to assess upfront resectability. Complete surgical resection plays a key role in successful management. Overall, outcomes have greatly improved over the past decades mainly because of advances in chemotherapy (CTR) agents and administration protocols, newer surgical approaches and liver transplantation (LT). Targeted medications towards the newly discovered β-catenin and Wnt genetic pathways in tumor cells may soon become an option for treatment. The current disease free survival (DFS) rates are approaching 85%. For the 25% of patients with metastasis at presentation, the overall survival (OS) remains poor. A more individualized approach to treating the heterogeneous spectrum of HB may become the basis of successful treatment in complex cases. Newer medications and surgical techniques are being exploited. Here we present a comprehensive review of the recent advances in the management of HB. A wide literature search was made using internet search engines such as PubMed and Google scholar. More than 100 articles were reviewed and the information extrapolated was arranged to produce this review.

Keywords:

Alfa fetoprotein, β-catenin, cisplatin, hepatoblastoma, liver transplantation, pretext.

Affiliation:

Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Section, College of Medicine, Princess Nourah Oncology Centre, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Department of Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Department of Medical Imaging, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah

Graphical Abstract:



Read Full-Text article