S.G. Kavya and R. Reghu* Pages 35 - 48 ( 14 )
High grade glioma is one of the severe form of tumour that progresses in the glial cells of the brain and spinal cord. Age, gender, exposure to infections, race, ethnicity, viruses and allergens, environmental carcinogens, diet, head injury or trauma and ionizing radiation may report with increased glioma risk. Headache, seizure mainly generalized tonic-clonic seizure, memory loss and altered sensorium are considered as common symptoms of glioma. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), CT scans, neurological examinations and biopsy are considered as the diagnostic option for glioma. Treatment for glioma mainly depended upon the tumour progression, malignancy, cell type, age, location of tumour growth and anatomic structure. The standard treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Temozolomide is usually prescribed at a dosage of 75 mg/m2 and began in combination with radiation therapy and continued daily. The primary indicator of hepatotoxicity is the elevation of the liver profiles, i.e. the changes in any of the liver panels may be considered to be hepatotoxic. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are rising panels of the liver, which are elevated during toxicity. In some patients, albumin and globulin levels may show variations. Treatment for glioma associated symptoms like seizures, depression anxiety etc. are also mentioned along with supportive care for glioma. New trends in the treatment for glioma are RINTEGA, an experimental immunotherapeutic agent and bevazizumab, a recombinant monoclonal, a humanized antibody against the VEGF ligand [VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor)] in tumor cells.
Glioma, temozolomide, chemotherapy, hepatotoxicity, supportive care, tumour.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, 682041, Kerala, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, 682041, Kerala